Emerging Issues

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Adverse Childhood Experiences

ACEs research continues, and some of the key issues identified include:

  • Toxic stress from ACEs impacts brain development as well as physical and emotional health
  • High levels of trauma over time can alter DNA and be passed from generation to generation
  • Trauma-informed care and resiliency-building interventions are both healing and preventative of future problems

Issues you may wish to consider include:

  • Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is available as a benefit through most forms of health insurance but is underutilized. Some regions have assessed DSME access to improve referrals and quality of care.
  • Short-term outcomes, including cost savings, may be more quickly achieved with interventions that decrease HbA1c levels in people with diagnosed diabetes. Implementing interventions that prevent diabetes, particularly with those experiencing prediabetes, may also help achieve long term cost reduction.
  • New interventions, such as group self-management support or engagement of community health workers - outside of a medical setting, may be more effective with some populations than older models of self-management education. However these new models are either not covered by health insurance or not paid for equally.
  • Evidence in both clinical trials and translational studies finds that the onset of type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed with lifestyle change support by trained coaches and peer groups over the course of one year. As of April 2018, Medicare began to cover qualified Diabetes Prevention Programs (DPP) for eligible enrollees. Programs in Washington State are beginning to meet criteria to qualify. A list of current suppliers can be found by searching for “WA” on the CMS Medicare Diabetes Prevention Programs website.
  • Other insurers in Washington State, including those providing benefits for state and higher-education employees and retirees, cover DPP but not all DPP programs have contracts in place with the insurers and employers.
  • Obesity is a health issue with a complex web of causes and co-morbidities. Generally speaking, obesity is the result of social, cultural, and physical environmental factors patients experience throughout their lives, genetic factors, and the interaction between those factors.
  • The environment where patients live, learn, work and play can increase or decrease risk of obesity. For instance, a community without safe areas for kids to play will make it harder to be physically active, which will increase risk for obesity.
  • Studies have shown that trauma experienced during childhood, as well as experiencing racism in daily life, are part of the complex set of causes of obesity.
  • Epigenetics is increasingly seen as a mechanism for obesity passing down through generations, as well as adult obesity and co-morbidities.
  • Increasing evidence shows a connection between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and adult obesity.
  • Synthetic opioids including illicit fentanyl and fentanyl-type drugs have been appearing in other drugs sold as pain pills or heroin, contributing to Fentanyl Overdose Deaths in Washington State.
  • Jail and prison inmates with opioid use disorder often lack access to Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) and social services while incarcerated.
  • There is a need to transform care for pregnant and new mothers with opioid use disorder, including stigma reeducation.
  • Rising rates of homelessness are creating a crisis in some communities. Trying to address housing and opioid issues is taxing limited resources.

* Sources:

Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, University of Washington, 2018

Centers for Disease Control, Drug Overdose Deaths 2013

Binswager, NEJM 2017


The emergence of vapor products (also known as e-cigarettes) has caused serious concern in Washington State.

  • A growing body of research indicates electronic cigarettes and vapor products have unique health risks that are not yet completely understood.
  • A major concern of stakeholders is that these products may again normalize smoking in public places.
  • According to the U.S. Surgeon General there are strong associations between use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products.

Vapor products are the most commonly used nicotine product among youth. One product increasingly popular among youth is JUUL. These devices emit little to know odor or aerosol and can be easily concealed. They closely resemble a USB flash drive and can be charged as such, so while they are hard to detect, teachers find students using them in classrooms and bathrooms.

JUULs come in an assortment of flavors that appeal to youth and the amount of nicotine in one pod is equivalent to that in one pack of cigarettes. These are among the reasons they are currently being investigated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

  • E-cigarettes are not safe for youth, young adults, pregnant women, or adults who do not currently use tobacco products.
  • People who have never smoked or used other tobacco products or e-cigarettes should not start doing so.
  • E-cigarettes have the potential to benefit adults who smoke cigarettes and are not pregnant, if used as a complete substitute for regular cigarettes and other smoked tobacco products.
  • While e-cigarettes have the potential to benefit some people and harm others, scientists still have much to learn about whether e-cigarettes are effective for quitting smoking,
  • Additional research is needed to understand long-term health effects.

More information about vapor products can be found on the Department of Health website.

Well Child Visits

There is an increase in the number of children with insurance coverage, and in many parts of the state there are not enough providers to meet the demand.

Some families are reluctant to access healthcare due to their nationality and citizenship status. Anecdotally, clinics report experiencing this even with immigrant patients who are legal residents. There may also be barriers due to language and/or comfort level.

There is increasing awareness of the need to address Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) as part of preventive care. Some healthcare systems are implementing a Trauma Informed Approach to interactions with children and parents/caregivers. This has created demand for ACEs related training and tools.