Supporting Children Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Their Families
FRC and ESIT Services Provider: Bias Awareness Training

Resources Section


Audiology Clinics for Infants (PDF)

Communicate with Your Child (PDF)
(Spanish) (Chinese) (Tagalog) (Korean) (Vietnamese)

Decision Guide to Communication Choices for Parents of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (PDF)

ESIT Practice Guide: Infants and Toddlers with Sensory Disabilities (PDF)

ESIT Practice Guide Pathways to Services (PDF)

ESIT Statewide Directory (PDF)

Hearing Tests for Children – What to expect before, during, and after your child’s hearing test (PDF)

Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH): Principles and Guidelines for Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs (2019) (PDF)

Resource Notebook for Families of Children Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (PDF)
(Spanish) (Russian) (Mandarin Chinese) (Somali) (Vietnamese)

Statewide Resources

Early Hearing Detection, Diagnosis, and Intervention (EHDDI) Program
Or call 1-888-WAEHDDI (1-888-923-4334)

Washington Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth (CDHY)
A statewide resource committed to ensuring all deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington reach their full potential regardless of where they live or attend school.
Outreach Services Birth-5

Washington Sensory Disabilities Services
Partners with schools, families, and agencies to support children and youth who are deaf/hard of hearing, blind/low vision, or deafblind.

Washington State Department of Children, Youth and Families (DCYF)
Early Support for Infants and Toddlers (ESIT)
Connects families of children who are hard of hearing ages birth to 3 with early support services in Washington State.

Washington State Hands & Voices Guide By Your Side™ (GBYS) Program
Provides free support and resources by trained Parent Guides.
425-268-7087 or email

WithinReach Help Me Grow Washington Hotline
Toll-Free: 1-800-322-2588
Fax: 206-299-9146

National Resources

Hands & Voices: Family Leadership in Language & Learning (FL3) Resource Toolbox
Library of Hands & Voices resources to support families, parents, and caregivers of deaf or hard-of-hearing babies, toddlers, and young children identified through a newborn hearing screening.

Hear to Learn
Interactive resources in English and Spanish for parents and professionals who wish to learn more about listening and spoken language development.

Sign It
Online curriculum for learning American Sign Language (ASL) for children under 36 months of age.

Other Trainings

Free Trainings

Implicit Bias Training Course | National Institute of Health | 3 Modules for 50 min (will need to take an additional course to meet hour requirements) | Online

Improving Cultural Competency for Behavioral Health Professionals | US Dept. of Health and Human Service | 4 Sessions for 4 – 5.5 hours | Online

Racial Equity Learning | National Healthy Start Association | 3 hours | Online

Racism, Bias, and Other Determinants of Health: Issues and Actions |Region IV Public Health Training Center | 2 Modules for 90mins (will need to take an additional course to meet hour requirements) | Online

Implicit Bias and Power Imbalances | Online


Paid Trainings

Implicit Bias Training for Healthcare Professionals | Renew Now CE | 2 hours | Online | $35

Implicit Bias in Healthcare Masterclass | CQC Healthcare | 2 hours | Online | $79


Other Educational Opportunities

Tribal Sovereignty and the Indian Health Care System | American Indian/Alaska Native Providers | 5 Modules for 5 hours | Webinar Videos

Who We Are: A Chronicle of Racism in American | Documentary by Jeffrey Robinson | 2 hours | Video

Through Deaf Eyes | 2 hours | Video


Active listening
A way of listening and responding to another person to improve mutual understanding.

American Sign Language (ASL)
ASL is a full, visual language with its own unique rules. Children learn ASL as their first language. Then they learn to read and write English or their family’s primary language. Families may also choose to teach their child spoken language, as well. The use of ASL is part of the Deaf community but is not limited to the Deaf community.

ASL-English Bilingual
ASL-English bilingualism supports the acquisition, learning, and use of ASL and English to meet the needs of diverse learners who are deaf and hard of hearing. It involves incorporating sign language and written/spoken language into the child's education and daily life, enabling them to navigate both the deaf and hearing worlds.

Availability bias
Tendency to rely on readily available information or examples that come to mind easily when making judgments or decisions.

An obstacle that prevents access.

Systematic and unfair preferences or prejudices towards or against certain individuals or groups based on personal beliefs, attitudes, or stereotypes.

Confirmation bias
Seeking or interpreting information to confirm preexisting beliefs or expectations.

Continuous education
Education after professional education; also known as lifelong learning.

Cued Speech
Cued speech helps children hear and see speech sounds. It uses special hand shapes as “cues” around the face when speaking. This can help children distinguish between words that can sound or look the same.

Cultural bias
Prejudices or preferences based on cultural differences. This bias can manifest in various forms, such as exclusion, providing limited access to resources, or assumptions about their capabilities.

Cultural sensitivity
Being aware and accepting of cultural differences.

Stands for Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Profoundly hard of hearing; may have little or no hearing.

Emotional bias
Emotions that can influence parents’ decision-making process and perception of support needs. When faced with their child’s hearing levels, parents may experience a range of emotions such as shock, denial, guilt, or fear.

Early Support for Infants and Toddlers (ESIT)
The Early Support for Infants and Toddlers (ESIT) program supports families with information and skills to ensure they are supported as the most critical influence on their child’s early learning and development.

Hard of Hearing
A person who is hard of hearing may have mild to severe hearing levels.

Implicit bias
Unconscious biases that influence our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors without our awareness. These biases are often deeply ingrained and can affect interactions and decision-making.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
A law that makes available a free appropriate public education to eligible children with disabilities throughout the nation and ensures special education and related services to those children.

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
A written document that outlines the ESIT services a child will receive when they are eligible for early childhood special education services.

Listening and Spoken Language (LSL)
Listening and spoken language teach children to understand and speak the language their family and peers speak. Children use their hearing abilities and hearing technology such as hearing aids and cochlear implants, as they learn spoken language.

Linguistic bias
Prejudices based on language differences. This bias can lead to limited communication access, exclusion, or a lack of understanding and appreciation for different communication modalities.

Personal Belief System
A set of propositions held to be true based on our own experiences, education, and assumptions.

Meditation or serious thought about one's character, actions, and motives.

Signing Exact English (S.E.E.)
S.E.E. is a sign language system that follows exact English vocabulary and grammar. Children are encouraged to communicate with their eyes, ears, hands, and voices.

Stereotyping bias
Forming generalizations or assumptions about individuals or groups based on limited information or common characteristics. This bias can lead to inaccurate perceptions, unfair treatment, and limited opportunities for those who do not conform to stereotypes.

Total Communication
Total communication combines a sign language system, such as Signing Exact English (S.E.E.) and spoken language.

Similar or the same as others of its type.


DesGeorges, J. (2016). Avoiding assumptions: Communication decisions made by hearing parents of deaf children. AMA J Ethics. 2016;18(4):442-446. doi: 10.1001/journalofethics.2016.18.4.sect1-1604.

Harlan Lane, Ethnicity, Ethics, and the Deaf-World, The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, Volume 10, Issue 3, Summer 2005, Pages 291–310,

Harris, C., Hemer, S. R., & Chur-Hansen, A. (2021). Informed choice and unbiased support: Parents’ experiences of decision-making in paediatric deafness. SSM - Qualitative Research in Health, 1, 100022.

Scott, Jessica A., and Hannah M. Dostal. “Language Development and Deaf/Hard of Hearing Children.” Education Sciences, vol. 9, no. 2, 2019, p. 135.,


Note: A certificate of completion is not provided for these trainings. An FRC can add the training to their professional development tracking form and do not need a certificate of completion. However, this may not be the case for other providers. Please reach out to ESIT or your supervisor if you have any questions. 

ESIT Professional Development: Professional Development | Washington State Department of Children, Youth, and Families